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Sense Tribunal

Beyond reasonable doubt (2005) - 52 min

The ICTY has judged the crime as genocide and three men have pleaded guilty acknowledging their participation in the executions of more than 7,000 men and boys and the deportation of nearly 30,000 women and children. Even the Republika Srpska Government has finally accepted that Srebrenica was a crime carried out by its forces. Despite all proofs, denials about genocide, the numbers of victims or whether a crime was even committed, persist.

Beyond Reasonable Doubt, a documentary film produced by SENSE, examines evidence adduced from the judicial process. The film presents the testimony of victims, forensic experts and the confessions of several of the massacre’s perpetrators, side-by-side with the denials and revisionist interpretations that seek to minimize the scale of atrocity.

As a reminder of this tension, the poignant words of Telford Taylor, lead prosecutor at the Nuremberg Trial, open the film: “It is important to determine those incredible facts on the basis of clear and public evidence, so that no one could ever doubt that those were indeed the facts, rather than fabrications.”

The film presents the testimony of those who organized and perpetrated the killings and those who tried to cover it up - digging mass graves and reburying bodies, as well as the moving personal stories of Srebrenica survivors including Camila Omanovic, Hasan Nuhanovic and Osman Avdic.

Transcript

TELFORD TAYLOR

... it is far more important that these incredible events be established by clear and public truth so that no one can ever doubt that they were facts and not fake...

WITNESS DD... and I repeated what he said, "Don't do it, for God's sake, he was born in '81... what do you want him for... He grabbed him, pulled him from my arms, threw him to the left... he turned around and the only thing he said to me was, "Mum, take my bag..."

OSMAN AVDIĆ

I will now go to Srebrenica. This is the first time I'll go there after 1995.

ĆAMILA OMANOVIĆ

... and then, after many sleepless nights thinking about what had happened to me, I decided to come here and start working...

HASAN NUHANOVIĆ

I first had to teach myself how to live with all this, including the other side’s denials.

PANNEL DISCUSSION Belgrade - May 17 2005

... we have invited here tonight people who have been dealing with the war in Bosnia for a long time, who know what happened in Srebrenica. They will present some facts that cast a different light on what happened there.

CROWD

Radovan Karadzic, Radovan Karadzic, Radovan Karadzic, Radovan Karadzic

BOSNIAN SERB KOMANDER

That's it, bro, I see it, I'm right in front of you, let's go, let's slam them, they're in trouble, push on now, I want to hear the yelling, charge!

OSMAN AVDIĆ

I only moved when I had to... As the Serbs took Srebrenica, piece by piece, moving down the hill, the people moved out slowly, bit by bit.

ĆAMILA OMANOVIĆ

We all gathered at the gas station near the UN base, at the entrance to Srebrenica facing Bratunac. There were many people there.

OSMAN AVDIĆ

... as a member of the local UNPROFOR staff, I worked directly with the team of UN military observers as their interpreter.

OSMAN AVDIĆ

A lot of people went left, into the woods and many others towards Potocari. I didn’t know what to do… there were no instructions.

ĆAMILA OMANOVIIĆ

I was with my husband. The entire family was together. And then we got separated at the gas station.

HASAN NUHANOVIĆ

This was not the first time we discussed our evacuation as a family: my father, mother and brother.

OSMAN AVDIĆ

When I saw where the people from the hospital went, I went towards them, because I believed I'd be safer with them.

ĆAMILA OMANOVIĆ

I saw him then for the last time and never again.

RADOVAN RADINOVIĆ

In order to prevent chaos in the town, the Main Staff of the Republika Srpska Army asked the President of the Republic, as Commander-in-Chief, what to do. He said, "Go into Srebrenica and prevent chaos."

RATKO MLADIĆ

All you have to do is say what you want. I said to the gentleman last night, "You can either survive or disappear."

ĆAMILA OMANOVIĆ

... the only thing I got was, "you can either survive or disappear." We could survive if we agreed to be evacuated, or disappear if we stayed here. There was no third option.

RATKO MLADIĆ

What is your profession, Ma'am?

ĆAMILA OMANOVIĆ

I'm an economist.

RATKO MLADIĆ

Where did you graduate?

ĆAMILA OMANOVIĆ

From Brcko.

RATKO MLADIĆ

Are you married?

ĆAMILA OMANOVIĆ

Yes.

RATKO MLADIĆ

Your name is Amela, right?

ĆAMILA OMANOVIĆ

Ćamila.

RATKO MLADIĆ

Ćamila?

ĆAMILA OMANOVIĆ

Ćamila. I have two children and a grandson.

RATKO MLADIĆ

So young and already a grandmother.

ĆAMILA OMANOVIĆ

Yes.

RATKO MLADIĆ

When were you born?

ĆAMILA OMANOVIĆ

In 1953.

RATKO MLADIĆ

Do you hold any political office?

ĆAMILA OMANOVIĆ

I was just in charge of accounting; I was never involved in politics...

RATKO MLADIĆ

... now, during the war?

ĆAMILA OMANOVIĆ

Not even during the war.

HASAN NUHANOVIĆ

I asked my mother where father was, and she said, "He's just left with UNPROFOR." I later found out that he and some others went to Bratunac with UNPROFOR. I was shocked!

RATKO MLADIĆ

And the gentleman next to you, who is he?

IBRO NUHANOVIĆ

I'm Ibro Nuhanovic.

RATKO MLADIĆ

Ibro?

IBRO

Nuhanovic.

RATKO MLADIĆ

Very well.

IBRO

I have a degree in economics - used to be a businessman. Now, during the war, I happened to end up here in Srebrenica with my family… by pure chance…

RATKO MLADIĆ

Speak up!

IBRO

I said, during the war I happened to come to Srebrenica, quite by chance. I lived in Vlasenica.

RATKO MLADIĆ

Where were you born?

IBRO

I was born in the village of Soboranj, Han Pijesak municipality.

RATKO MLADIĆ

The village of?

IBRO

Soboranj.

RATKO MLADIĆ

Soboranj.

HASAN NUHANOVIĆ

Then I learned this was the idea of the Dutch; they wanted someone to go with them to Bratunac, to speak on behalf of the refugees in Potocari…

RATKO MLADIĆ

After the surrender of your weapons, you can choose: either to stay in this territory or, if you prefer, to go wherever you want.

ĆAMILA OMANOVIĆ

Almost everyone asked to leave, to be transported to Tuzla, because the men had already been separated from the rest in Srebrenica and had gone towards Tuzla. Everyone wanted to go to Tuzla, but no one wanted the rest to happen; not for the killings to happen.

HASAN NUHANOVIĆ

Between the sentences I was interpreting, I asked my father if there was any hope for optimism… Whether he put on an act so as not to frighten me, I don’t know, he laughed a few times and said everything would be fine…

ĆAMILA OMANOVIĆ

... however, he told us no one would be hurt, that everyone would leave, but, since he was a humane person, he would first evacuate the elderly, women and children, and then the rest

RATKO MLADIĆ

Don't be afraid… take it easy! Let the women and children go first. Thirty buses will come; we’ll transport you to Kladanj. Then you will cross over to the territory controlled by Alija's forces. Don’t panic, let the small children and women through, don’t let any children get lost. Don’t be afraid, no one will harm you…

ĆAMILA OMANOVIĆ

When I went back from the negotiations with Mladic to look for my children, we crossed over here; I felt I would be safer here, closer to the UN. And here we spent the second night, the most terrible night in my life.

Serb soldiers passed amongst us, shining their flashlight on us. They took the men out, one, then another… Screams were heard from a bus. A woman was in labour, she was screaming, and there was no one to help her. Another woman had gone crazy; there was shouting and moaning… Everyone sensed what was happening. It was horror. We’d lurch forward like a wave, then we’d stop and it got quiet. And so it went. It was a silent moonlit night,and people started falling asleep… when suddenly a man's voice came from the nearby abattoir. The voice sounded like Fikret Hodzic, whom we all knew. The voice was full of sorrow, like he was being tortured, as though he was being skinned alive. He was calling the names, "Nesib, Hedib…" and then the sound of a thousand chains hitting him… Then the people got up and started moving, trampling each other underfoot, and then it stopped, there was silence again. The moment you calm down, something happens. And again, we hear this sound of a man being tortured… this was a night of horror

MOMIR NIKOLIĆ

Lt.Col. Popovic told me that the women and children would be evacuated towards Kladanj, and that men of military age would be separated and temporarily detained. When I asked what would happen to them, he told me all the Balijas should be killed.

RADOVAN RADINOVIĆ

It is a heinous lie that someone could have planned this, because there would be papers in the operational files of the warring factions and in the records of the ICTY to prove that someone had intended deportation. I never found such a document and no one has disclosed it yet. I'm sure there is no such document.

PETER McCLOSKEY

Now I want to take you to March 1995, to an operational directive nr. 7 from Mr. Karadzic. Again, showing us the Serb intentions towards the enclave: "By planned and well thought-out combat operations create un unbearable situation of total insecurity with no hope of further survival or life for the inhabitants of Srebrenica and Zepa." Again, here is Mr. Karadzic making an outrageous statement against the civilian inhabitants, making their life impossible.

DRAGAN JEVIĆ - STALJIN

I heard that Mr. Nikolic said I had coordinated the separation of people in Potocari together with him. I state now that I did not.

PETER McCLOSKEY

Did you ever see any men separated from their families in the crowd, in Potočari, while you were there on the 12th of July?

STALJIN

I did not.

MUNIBA

At one point I saw a soldier standing by the road, and he said, that the men should cross to the other side of the road, leaving their personal belongings there. He told my brother and the others, "You, you, you and you, cross over there." He said, "Leave the stuff, go over there."

McCLOSKEY

(You) never saw any Muslim hit or kicked? Pushed on to a bus?

STALJIN

No.

McCLOSKEY

Did you receive any reports that Muslims were being physically abused on 12th of July?

STALJIN

No.

McCLOSKEY

How come you’re smiling?

STALJIN

Well, you know, eight years have passed since those events, and one tries to remember every detail, and can't remember… and yet one knows… I know that I did a normal, beneficial thing.

KARNAVAS

Stop right there. Do you see yourself anywhere, in this video, in this frozen frame?

TANASIJEVIĆ

Yes.

KARNAVAS

Who are you in the picture?

TANASIJEVIĆ

This man with a cigarette, in the front.

SHIN

And you mentioned that you were there, in that area for five minutes. Right? You agree with that?

TANASIJEVIĆ

Yes.

SHIN

Did you see any man being separated from that group of people in front of you?

TANASIJEVIĆ

No.

MUNIBA

He separated me from my brother. My brother was wearing short-sleeves. I asked him if I could take the bag to my brother, he would be cold… He replied, "You don't have to take the bag, he won’t need it anymore."

KARNAVAS

Do you see yourself there?

VUKŠIĆ

Yes.

KARNAVAS

Is that you?

VUKŠIĆ

Yes.

KARNAVAS

Is that a weapon that you carry?

VUKŠIĆ

Yes. I encountered only one man. There were maybe five or six women there, and children.

SHIN

Just to be clear about one thing: that is actually an entire column of civilians walking on the other side of road from you, isn't it?

VUKŠIĆ

Yes.

SHEEN

It's more than just five or six women.

VUKŠIĆ

Sure, there’s more than that, but I didn’t count.

SHIN

Did you see any man being separated from the women in that group?

VUKŠIĆ

No.

SHIN

Have you ever heard anything about that? Either that time or later?

VUKŠIĆ

I didn't hear anything.

SHIN

You did mention that you saw women, children, as well as men in that group, right?

TANASIJEVIĆ

Yes.

SHIN

It's the prosecution's position that those men in that group were later executed. Do you know anything about that?

TANASIJEVIĆ

I heard about it later, but I don’t know anything specifically.

RAZDVAJAČ

Come on, one by one, follow them… No, no, you to the left, to the left… Let’s go, in a column, one by one, no crowding, to the left…

ĆAMILA OMANOVIĆ

I seized an opportunity; I put my children down from my shoulders, climbed up the side of the truck, and jumped down. I stood in front of a Serb soldier who trained his rifle on me and said, "Stop, damn you, or I'll shoot." I said, "Kill me, but the world will find out about this. My children are small, they're innocent…" He said, "No one's innocent here, you’re all…" he started swearing again. The truck's engine started and it drove off…

HASAN NUHANOVIĆ

About 15,000 people were evacuated on 12 July, about 5,000 remained to be evacuated and we were told, when they're done, it's your turn, you in the base.

ĆAMILA OMANOVIĆ

My brother came along. I told him, “Brother, help me kill myself.” He took out the noose he had prepared for himself.

HASAN NUHANOVIĆ

He said, “Tell your father he can stay.”… he said, because he was with us at the meeting, as arepresentative of the refugees.

ĆAMILA OMANOVIĆ

I tied the noose tight so that it wouldn't come off, and I said, "Dear God, don't consider this asin." I know that one should not commit suicide, but I can't fall into enemy hands. I tied the noose and hanged myself. When I woke up I was in hospital, my brother was there, and he said, “Sister, you're a coward. I’d have your death on my conscience all my life. And I said, “I'm alive. I want to die, I don’t want to live.”

HASAN NUHANOVIĆ

And at the same time he tells me to stay too. My father can stay, my mother can get on the bus and probably reach Kladanj alive, so that leaves just my brother. The only thing Franken had to say, in order to save the entire family, was, “OK, let him stay. Look, his father and his brother are staying, why not you, right?” And he said, “OK, tell your father if he doesn't want to stay he can go too.” My father lifted up his hand to Franken, like this, y'know, like he was saying goodbye, and I… I don’t know what I said. It was the most difficult moment in my life.

ROBERT FRANKEN

Having made a choice for women and children, I had to proceed with that evacuation to get them out as soon as possible. And I couldn't ???? that, having made a choice already for women and children instead for the men.

RADOVAN RADINOVIĆ

According to the agreement and orders from the UN and Yasushi Akashi, they had to control the relocation, and they did.

FRANKEN

The first two three convoys went well and after that it was absolutely frustrating. They were stopped and robbed by parts of the Bosnian Serb army and it went as far that couple of my escort teams came back in their underpants. So the escort of the convoys went wrong. We didn't actually escort them. We were not able to do that.

HASAN NUHANOVIĆ

I'm totally shocked, and was beside myself, as darkness fell. I'm moving around the base, listening… I didn’t dare go out. If I went out, I'd be killed. You must think of yourself. As I listened around me, I heard sporadic shots from the direction of Bratunac. It's not far, about 2 km as the crow flies. I heard loud music and voices just around the corner. The Dutch were drinking there. I said to myself, “Man, what planet am I on?" I looked at myself and everybody and thought, “Are we a race, a people that must disappear?” No one cared about it.
OSMAN AVDIĆ
When I looked down from this one hill, I recognized the area where I lived. And then I knew how far I was from Srebrenica. About two days` walk, and two or three more to Tuzla.

DRAGAN OBRENOVIĆ
I then called the VRS Main Staff and was put through to General Miletic. I spoke to him briefly and told him where the column was and how dangerous it was. I told him that Zvornik would fall and that half of our Zvornik Brigade would be destroyed. He ordered me to use all I had at my disposal to destroy the column. He reprimanded me for using the unsecured line and hung up.

OSMAN AVDIĆ
Wherever possible they intercepted us; wherever possible, we tried to go round their villages. If it was not possible… well, and then those events unfolded in the woods… now they`re finding the bodies, bones everywhere…

PRIPADNIK KOLONE
There were five ambushes. At Kamenica, then at Veljeva glava, down on the asphalt road…

VOJNIK VRS
C`mon boys, come out!
Let`s go!
Hurry up!

MARK HARMON
Mr. Husich you describe in part of your answer that you surrender because you could hear Bosnian Serbs calling you to surrender. Is that correct?

ENVER HUSIĆ
Not just because we heard them calling us to surrender, but because we saw UNPROFOR down there. We were hoping they would not kill us because of UNPROFOR.

ARHIV
Fuck UNPROFOR.

McCLOSKEY
What did you think was going to happen to the men captured along the Konjevich Polje - Bratunac road on the 13th.

MOMIR NIKOLIĆ
I didn`t think anything, Mr. Prosecutor, I knew what would happen there. I knew that those men would be captured and then killed. I knew that.

OSMAN AVDIĆ
Other people led the way. I just left the school, left the students, and headed down with a group of people. As far as I remember, we travelled, day and night, stopping and starting. We finally crossed, I`m not sure if it was on Monday or Tuesday, 17 July, into the free territory in Tuzla.

RADOVAN RADINOVIĆ
It`s a miracle how over 5,000 people from the column managed to get through all those heavily fortified lines. The Muslim side reported that over 5000 people from this column managed to get to Tuzla on the 17th. It`s a miracle. If someone asked me that day how the column would fare, I`d have said it would be destroyed. I believe that their supreme command expected that.. It was sacrificed for all practical purposes.

GEOFFREY NICE
The accused suggested that the proper cause would have been for people to have surrendered and become prisoners of war rather than to break out. Did those who broke out survive?

ROBERT FRANKEN
As far as I know, a part of them sir.

GEOFFREY NICE
Did those who would have stayed as prisoners of war survived to your knowledge?

ROBERT FRANKEN
As far as I know they did not, sir.

DIREKTOR ZADRUGE KRAVICA
I didn`t expect to find such a scene. There were many dead in the hangar. Near the top of the hangar, I heard shooting, people were still being killed, as others were being brought in.

P 106
When the last man got in to the warehouse, he had nowhere to sit. [The guard] cursed him and said, sit down! He turned towards [the guard] and replied, “I have nowhere to sit.” He fired a burst into him and then fire was opened from all sides. They lobbed bombs, fired rifle-grenades. Fire was opened from everywhere. After dark, the shooting stopped. As day broke, I pulled two dead bodies onto me and stayed there all day, until nightfall.

DIREKTOR ZADRUGE KRAVICA
The people were orderd to line up then lie down.. They said, they would be vaccinated and then there would be verification.

MICHAEL KARNAVAS
Where would they shoot in these individuals?

DIREKTOR ZADRUGE KRAVICA
Into the back of their heads.

SVEDOK
Then there was a burst of gunfire from the right. People fell down to the left and knocked me over. A man fell down and my right arm was thrown across his chest. The firing stopped. I concluded that I had not been hit because I was not in much pain. A man was calling out, “Finish me off”, and the soldier shouted back, “Take it easy!”

ORIĆ
When we got off the truck, they told us to line up as quickly as possible. My nephew Haris was with me, we held hands. He told me they would kill us all, I said they wouldn’t - he didn’t finish speaking when they started firing on us. One burst hit my nephew. He cried out, I threw myself on the ground and he fell on top of me. The wounded were then finished off. They continued bringing people in and shooting them. The moaning wounded were finished off.

SVEDOK O
Some people were saying, “Give us water and then kill us.” I really didn’t want to die thirsty. When they opened fire, I felt a pain in my leg. I didn’t dare to cry out. A man walked over me, a soldier, and fired a shot into the head of the man next to me who was groaning.

DRAŽEN ERDEMOVIĆ
Whenever a bus came to the farm, as I said, the group commander Brano Gojkovic organized us into a firing squad. Two military policemen took the Muslims from Srebrenica by tens. Brano Gojkovic and Vlastimir Golijan brought them before the firing squad.

P 105
We came to the bodies there. He says, turn your backs. We turned our backs.

DRAŽEN ERDEMOVIĆ
We were ordered to fire on the civilians, or rather to execute them.

P 105
Instead of "fire!", there was "lie down!" But he barely said "lie down", when the shooting started. I was not hit but I fell down. Another man fell on top of me and I just lay there. A Serb soldier called out after the shooting stopped, "Is there anyone alive?" One man said, “I am,” and another one said, “I am, kill me.” He approached them, and fired one bullet into each of them, bang bang, and that was it.

MARK HARMON
Can you estimate Mr. Erdemovich how many civilians were killed by your unit and members of the Bratunac unit on 16th of July?

DRAŽEN ERDEMOVIĆ
On the 16th of July? About a thousand, I think 1,200. I don’t know. I estimate this based on the number buses.

MARK HARMON
Are you able to estimate how many people you killed?

DRAŽEN ERDEMOVIĆ
I don’t know exactly, I can’t estimate that. To tell you the truth, I wouldn’t want to know how many people I killed.

POPOV
As for Srebrenica, the news just started to reach us and it remains unconfirmed… Figures were manipulated. The initial figure was 2,500 and now we come to 9,000.

NICE
Oh!? Why do you say manipulated?

POPOV
In my opinion, it was really manipulated, because, let`s be realistic, if 9,000 people had been killed there, who would have buried them?

MOMIR NIKOLIĆ
Do you really think that anyone could be in compliance with the Geneva Conventions in an operation where 7,000 people were separated, captured and killed? Do you really think that anyone would comply with rules in an operation where people were captured, killed, buried, exhumed, reburied… Do you really think that anyone would comply with the Geneva Conventions in such an operation?

DEAN MANNING
At the moment we know of 43 mass graves sites in total. 23 of those had been exhumed by ICTY. The reminder were handed over to the Bosnian commission for missing persons... secondary graves which we were unable to exhume.

SVEDOK
When I started digging - I don’t know how long I had been digging - when someone approached me and told me to switch off the engine and get off. I heard a truck come in. When the truck stopped, there were shouts, “Get out!” and so on. After that gunfire was heard. I saw the bodies, I didn’t count them, as I passed by, I turned my head away, I couldn`t look. I really don’t know how many bodies there were. I later saw they were in civilian clothes.

DEAN MANNING
Primary graves are graves in which the people, the victims were initially placed after their death or indeed were executed whilst in the graves or near the graves. The other graves are secondary graves , those graves which have been created since that time and the bodies from the primary graves had been moved to the secondary graves.

UTOVARIVAČ
Then it happened, it was a front loader. Those in front of me, started loading up. The machine brought the bodies, with the assistance of the Civil Protection workers. This is how the loading started.

RADINOVIĆ
It is morbid to manipulate the data and to put forward various figures for the people who were killed there, 3,000, 2,000, 5,000 or 7,800, which is today considered to be the accepted figure. But please bear in mind, if we are aware that a crime was committed there, and if we all carry the stigma of shame, then whether there were 3,000 or 7,800 victims is not a negligible distinction. You lawyers know this better than I do, the gravity of the crime depends on the scale.

McCLOSKEY
This is the photograph of the mass grave in Kozluk, where some several hundred bodies were found but at the same time we knew that several hundred bodies were removed. As you know from the indictment in September and October after this murder operation, there was a huge operation to remove the bodies and to hide them and burry them in many locations in the woods, so they would not be found by the international community when NATO troupes arrived.

MANNING
This primary grave has been disturbed. The grave at Kozluk has been disturbed. The primary grave at the dam Petkovci has been heavily desturbed. The graves at Orahovac which is known as Lazete had been desturbed. To the South of the map the grave at Glogova one and Glogova two had been desturbed. The remaining primary graves indicated in red had not been disturbed.

WESPI
Can you tell the trial chamber how you felt that day when you loaded the bodies?

UTOVARIVAČ SIMIĆ
I felt… (sighs) it was horrible. I was scared, uneasy, because this same loader may have buried many of my relatives during the war in Bratunac. As I did it, I was upset.

ĐOKIĆ
I went to the Civil Protection HQ and said we were leaving, and would not carry out such tasks. Had we known there would be such tasks, I would not have gone to Bratunac, and neither would the others probably, to carry out those unspeakable tasks.

KESEROVIĆ
To this day, we really have explanation for how it all started and whose mind conceived this.

ČAVIĆ
The report of the Commission for the determination of truth about the events in Srebrenica between 10 and 19 July 1995 is the first step on the arduous road to learn the truth, which will probably be crushing for all of us. It is up to the relevant state authorities and institutions to take action based on the Commission’s results and up to all of us to continue down the road to truth. It is the only way to avoid our children hating each other in the future because they are Croats, Bosniaks or Serbs.

OBRENOVIĆ
My testimony and my admission of guilt removes the responsibility from my people. This is the guilt of one man named Dragan Obrenovic. I stand behind this, I`m responsible for this part.

NIKOLIĆ
I am aware that I can’t bring back the dead, that I can`t assuage the pain of families with my admission, but I want to contribute to the determination of the full truth about Srebrenica and its victims, finally.

DRAŽEN ERDEMOVIĆ
I had to do it. If I had refused, they would have killed me together with those people. When I refused to do it, they told me, "If you feel sorry for them, stand there with them, we`ll kill you too."

MERON
This is departure from denial. He says: “Yes, I did it. Yes, I am sorry, I am very sorry that I committed those crimes.”

LJILJANA
“Clinton offered that if Chetniks entered Srebrenica and slaughtered 5,000 Muslims, NATO would intervene," he testifies and I saw with my own eyes a TV report with Alija and Clinton sitting together, when Clinton made the proposal.

SLOBODAN MILOŠEVIĆ
On 1 July 1995, in the house of the former Muslim mayor of Zvornik, with two representatives of the Muslim government from Sarajevo present, representatives of a mercenary unit that was part of the Republika Srpska Army - not under its command, but under the French intelligence service - arranged to commit this crime, the purging of Srebrenica and the slaughter…

RADINOVIĆ
This all smacks - now I`m entering paranoia territory - of a trap, where a large-scale Serb crime was set up, a large-scale Serb crime to justify all that would follow.

POPOV
... to support the demand for reparations sought by Bosnia and Herzegovina from Serbia and to paint the Serb people as a criminal nation.

LJILJANA
Ten days, counting from the 10th, 11th, and 12th July, I can say that this is the tenth anniversary of the liberation of Srebrenica.

SCORPIONS - Serbian military unit
Don`t you worry about me.
Why are you shaking, you motherfucker.
They really stink, the fuckers.
Like skunks.
They shat in their pants.
C`mon, out of the trucks! Get up, hurry up, move!
Over here, sit here to the side! Over there!
Sit down there, line up, all of you!
Sit down there, hurry up!
That`s it, pray, you motherfuckers.
Hurry it up!
Look there.
Hurry up!
You were not so slow when you killed Serbs...
Nothing, we’ll kill two of you and let the other four go…
... those who are best behaved. Put your heads down!
Which one of you was born in `79?
C`mon, further up.
Go further up!

COURTROOM
The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is now in session.

THEODOR MERON
Please, be seated.
By seeking to eliminate a part of the Bosnian Muslims, the Bosnian Serb forces committed genocide. They targeted for extinction the forty thousand Bosnian Muslims living in Srebrenica, a group which was emblematic of the Bosnian Muslims in general. The Bosnian Serb forces were aware when they embarked on this genocidal adventure that the harm they cause would continue to plague the Bosnian Muslims. The Appeals Chamber states unequivocally that the law condemns in appropriate terms the deep and lasting injury inflicted and calls the massacre in Srebrenica by its proper name: genocide.

HASAN NUHANOVIĆ
My entire life has been unsettled, because it’s not the way it would have been had this not happened to me, to my family. You know... I don’t like the situation I`m in, you see, I can`t shake this thing that`s been stalking me.

OSMAN AVDIĆ
But I`m glad, you know, I`m glad that there’s peace now. You can see, we are, after all, just people who want to live and work; moderate people, easy to get along with… we coexist with everyone.

ĆAMILA OMANOVIIĆ
Well, now he`s been buried, and maybe he`s the main reason I came here. He left Mostar… he was an only child… his mother didn’t have any other children. He studied in Tuzla, and I did too. That`s where we met. He came to the galvanization plant to work. Then we built our house and we always used to say, "We`ll live in Bosnia for twenty years and then in Herzegovina for another twenty." He didn`t live to see the other twenty. He now lives in Potocari and I will be with him as long as I live... And that`s all.

TELOP
The ICTY has issued a total of 19 indictments for genocide and other crimes in Srebrenica; two more are in the process of review. Apart from Dražen Erdemović, Momir Nikolić and Dragan Obrenović, the three accused who pleaded guilty, three more were convicted and were sentenced: Radislav Krstić to 35 years in prison, Vidoje Blagojević to 18 and Dragan Jokić to 9 years in prison. Nine more accused await trial for the crimes in Srebrenica; one of them is still at large.

Srebrenica is an important element in the indictments against Slobodan Milošević, former president of Serbia and FRY and General Momčilo Perišić, former Chief of VJ General Staff. The prosecution has filed an application to expand the indictment against former heads of Serbian secret police, Jovica Stanišić and Frenki Simatović, to include allegations referring to Srebrenica. Ten years after the fall of Srebrenica, ten years after they were indicted for genocide, Radovan Karadzic and Ratko Mladić remain out of reach of international justice.

On the basis of the exhumed remains, it is estimated that almost 8,000 people were killed in Srebrenica. It is hard to determine the exact figure because the mass graves were exhumed and bodies were moved to other locations. In some cases, the remains of one person were found in several graves. To date, 1,700 victims have been buried in Potocari.

Cases

Schedule

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