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Sense Tribunal

SARAJEVO ROSES* – Terror in 12 Pictures (2012) - 54 min

It is a documentary film about the way the 44-month siege in Bosnia-Herzegovina’s capital has been depicted and reconstructed in the various trials before the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia.

The film, produced on the occasion of 20th anniversary of the beginning of the siege, features the residents of Sarajevo witnessing before the court, recounting their ordeals and the suffering of their families and friends. It also features evidence from international eyewitnesses, including renowned war correspondents, whose news reports from Sarajevo were presented in the trial. The film exclusively uses the courtroom recordings provided by the ICTY Audio-Visual Unit, and wartime documentary footage admitted into evidence at the various Sarajevo trials.

*A Sarajevo Rose is a concrete scar caused by a mortar shell explosion that was later filled with the red resin. (Wikipedia)

Transcript

CAROLYN EDGERTON

Terror is, in this case, the intentional deprivation of a sense of security. Absolutely no sense of safety anywhere in the city. No one knew whether they’re meant to be the next victim. It affected every waking moment of their lives. Terror has been that moment of panic when they try and run to help the victim, waiting for the next shots to come. And we have ample evidence about that.

SVEDOK 91

We called this a rose or a paw in our technical slang. It occurs on spots of impact of a mortar shell on tarmac. In this case, it was an 82-calibre shell.

SARAJEVO ROSES

MARK IERACE

The siege of Sarajevo as it came to be popularly known was an episode of such notoriety in the conflict of the former Yugoslavia that one must go back to World War II to find a parallel in European history. Not since then had a professional army conducted a campaign of unrelenting violence against the inhabitants of a European city so as to reduce them to a state of medieval deprivation in which they were in constant fear of death.

NARRATOR

Laying siege to a city and imposing unbearable conditions to its civilian population is not – bizarre as it may sound – a crime under international humanitarian law. At the trials and in the judgments passed by the Tribunal, the term ‘siege’ has been used solely as a factual description of the situation faced by the citizens of Sarajevo, to depict the backdrop of the crimes whose primary purpose was to spread terror among the civilians.

BESIEGED

MARK IERACE

Had the accused wished to simply kill as many Sarajevans as possible, this was not the way to do it.He was equipped with the means to extract higher civilian casualty figures had that been his intention. The city was ringed with hills which contained hundreds of mortars, tanks, howitzers, rockets, and other artillery. It is apparent from the characteristics of the campaign over such a protracted period that the intention was not to kill as many civilians as possible, but rather to inculcate in each citizen the realisation that, so long as he or she remained in Sarajevo, they and their loved ones lived under an inescapable risk of death.

NARRATOR

For protracted campaign of terror over Sarajevo, the Tribunal’s Prosecutor has indicted top Bosnian Serb political and military leaders: Republika Srpska president Radovan Karadzic and commander of its Army, General Ratko Mladic. They are charged with planning and ordering the attacks on the civilian population.

Generals Stanislav Galic and Dragomir Milosevic, wartime commanders of Sarajevo-Romanija Corps which held the city in its iron grip, were charged with implementing and executing the plans and orders received from their leaders.

Finally, Slobodan Milosevic, the president of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and General Momcilo Perisic, the Chief of the Yugoslav Army General Staff, were charged with providing logistical, personnel and other support to the forces besieging the city; thus aiding and abetting the terror campaign in Sarajevo.

VIDEO:

Out on the streets is UN protection Corps was actually doing some protecting. A slow moving armored personnel carrier was sheltering people against sniper fire.

MARTIN BELL

This was probably the first occasion where -- in the history of warfare, where the weapons of mass destruction were used at the same time that we had instruments of mass communication to show the effects of this day by day in the living-rooms of Europe and far beyond Europe.

VIDEO

JEREMY BOWEN

There isn’t a time or a place where the citizens of Sarajevo can feel safe

ERNAUT VAN LYNDEN

The shooting and the siege continue just as they have done for the past 5 months.

MARTIN BELL

Two mediators drive into town, passed the body of a young woman, shot in the head that morning and left to lie there.

JEREMY BOWEN

Civilians have to risk their lives to do the simplest things and they are sick of it.

ERNAUT VAN LYNDEN

No minute passes without a new van or ambulance coming in, baring more wounded

MARTIN BELL

They learned to improvise and they need all the best friends they can find.Martin Bell, BBC News, Sarajevo

AT GUNPOINT

MARK IERACE

Occupation, age, sex, and ethnic background were irrelevant to the sniper.Civilians were shot in their homes as they watched television, drank coffee, or prayed.They were shot outside their homes as they crossed the street, collected wood, drew water from canals, carried it home, cleared rubbish, chatted and walked with friends, rode in cars, trucks, buses, and trams, on bicycles and buried their dead. It seems no area of human activity was too innocuous, mundane, or sacrosanct to escape the sniper's judgement.

TARIK KUPUSOVIC

Throughout those first few months, we thought that the war must come to an end next week, that what was happening was quite impossible.

AERNOUT VAN LYNDEN

Fear. People lived as much as they could in the basements of their apartments or in bomb shelters, and people were made fearful because they became aware that wherever they were -- may be living in the city, they could be hit by either an artillery shell or a mortar bomb or heavy machine-gun fire.

RICHARD MOLE,

Wherever you went, whatever you did, you were subject to this incessant fear and concern that that journey you were on was going to complete.

ISMET HADZICH

At the beginning of the war, it was a disaster, psychologically speaking. It affected not only the families of those who were killed but also the entire neighborhoods around the area where someone had been killed. By 1994 and 1995 – and it’s hideous to say it - but it became a normal thing. Only the families who had their family members killed were affected. But as for the others, they just noticed one person less.

MILAN MANDILOVIC

Fear, anxiety, neurosis, neurasthenia, phobias of different kinds, all the deviant mental states which were the result of an unnatural state of affairs over a long period of time.”

NOISE

RICHARD MOLE,

It's very important to understand the background noise and intensity in a city. The noise never ceased, it was persistent, and so we would put down, on a situation report for the end of a day, that it had been a quiet day if about 100 rounds had landed in the city. A fairly active day would be in the 400 to 500 mark. An extremely active day would be 600 upwards.

NARRATOR

It is undisputed that on both sides of the confrontation lines there were military facilities and forces that were legitimate targets of the attacks by the opposing side. But legitimate military actions, even if caused unintentional civilian casualties, have not resulted in prosecution and trials. What did result in indictments were the acts that violated the principle of distinction between military and civilian targets, a principle that each and every commander must comply with. The prohibition of attacks on civilians is a peremptory norm of customary international law, and cannot be violated or justified by any kind of military necessity.

MARTIN BELL

And then at lunchtime today, a round fell directly in the middle of the main shopping street.In spite of everything, people do go out in large numbers at this time of day, and the mortar claimed its victims at random among them.This was the same street a short time later, the dead and the injured had been taken away, the mortar bombs kept on falling.To say that the daily life of these people is intolerable is understatement.There is no safe place or time... The business of Sarajevo is survival.Its people have neither hope of escape, nor thought of surrender.

MARTIN BELL

To me the blame lies also with the – with the Western democracies, who didn't care enough about the people or understand that everyone's safety was threatened by this fire burning in a part of our common European home.

HOSPITALS

EARNOUT VAN LYNDEN

Every night in Sarajevo, you think it can't get worse, but it does... Under a sickle moon, the city rocks to the explosions. Lit up by fire and the mass of glowing sparks that drift across its roofs. With daylight, we find the intensive care wards of the city's central hospital packed, with amputees in pain. Some will live, but the doctors are resigned to this girl's death. Not far from where she lies, do others that have gone before. A place of haphazard death, some covered, some not, where maggots crawl the floors. A little house of Bosnian horror. Aernout van Lynden, Sky News, Sarajevo.

NARRATOR

The little house of Bosnian horrors’ in the Sarajevo City Hospital was not caused solely by the large number of casualties brought in after the artillery and sniper attacks in the city. It was, also, the consequence of artillery, mortar and machine gun fire deliberately targeted hospitals. The casualties were not only walls and windows, but the medical staff and many of the patients, too.

BAKIR NAKASS

Your honors, in this photograph you can see the southern side of the State Hospital of Sarajevo. Because of the state of the southern walls, most of the foreigners who came to this hospital called it the Swiss Cheese Hospital, and that is how they readily recognized it.

JOHN ASHTON

One particular incident I remember on September 23rd when the hospital took three major hits from two sides, one from the front and two shells hit it from the east, from towards Pale. But that day was a very crucial day because we had so many wounded people from the street come in and a shell landed just as some of the wounded were arriving and wounded more that had gone out to help.

MILAN MANDILOVICH

The first and main purpose was to destabilize and destroy all the vital functions of the city. Health-care is an important function that significantly affects the morale of people, and I believe that is one of the main reasons for the permanent fire in the attempts to destroy and disable the hospital.

CHILDREN

MORTEN HVAAL

This photograph was taken, I believe, in August of 1993, in what we referred to as the French hospital in Sarajevo. It is a photograph of a, I believe, five-year-old girl by the name of Irma

Hadzimuratovic. She was wounded in a mortar attack that also killed her mother, and I believe in the backyard of the building where she lived.

NARRATOR

A photograph of five-year-old Irma, who sustained spinal and abdominal injuries in July ‘93, was broadcast across the globe and became a symbol of the suffering of Sarajevo children.

FATIMA ZAIMOVICH

Sometimes two to three children came in. When there was very heavy shelling, they would come in groups. There were times when there would be ten or six or seven children coming, and they were so frightened, covered in blood, mud, dismembered. Their parents would be crying. The staff would be crying. The walls would be crying, everybody.

JOHN JORDAN Killing is not necessarily the end result; destruction is the end result. You kill a man, it's over. You wound a man, four have to carry him out. When you're targeting civilians like this, particularly families who may or may not be Muslim, shooting the child has the effect of literally disemboweling the whole family.

NARRATOR

Jordan’s colleague from the international firefighters’ team happened to be near the spot in the city center where seven-year-old Nermin was killed by a sniper bullet - that hit him in the head after passing through his mother’s belly.

DZZENANA SOKOLOVICH

At that moment the little one fell. The bullet hit his cheek and came out of his head.

JOHN DOCHERTY

Was that the same bullet that had just passed through you?

DZZENANA SOKOLOVICH

Yes, the same one.

JOHN DOCHERTY

As a result of this bullet hitting him, what happened to your son, Nermin?

DZZENANA SOKOLOVICH

They took him down to the morgue. I suppose they buried him afterwards. I learned about it only five or six days later. They were hiding from me the fact that he had been killed.

JOHN DOCHERTY Were you shot during the siege of Sarajevo?

SANELA DEDOVICH

Yes

JOHN DOCHERTY Do you remember the date on which you were shot? SANELA DEDOVICH

It was the 22nd November 1994.

JOHN DOCHERTY

How old were you on the 22nd of November, 1994?

SANELA DEDOVICH

I was 12.

JOHN DOCHERTY

Were you wearing new shoes on the 22nd of November, 1994?

SANELA DEDOVICH

Jesam, obukla sam nove tene i tako da sam odluccila da pretrccim tu preko raskrnice possto je, ovaj, dan pre padala kissa i bilo je ovamo blatnjavo po tim basstama tako da sam odluccila tu da predjem preko raskrsnice.

Yes, I was. I put on my new tennis shoes and I decided to run across this junction, because the day before it was raining and it was muddy to go through gardens, so I decided to run across this junction.

JOHN DOCHERTY

So you didn't want to get your new shoes dirty?

SANELA DEDOVICH

Well, as a little girl, that's what I decided. And I wanted to walk to town in my new tennis shoes.

FATIMA ZAIMOVICH

A child, a wonderful child, was injured, in Jelena Vitas Street. I remember that extremely well. His name was Dario Vapetic. It is stuck in my memory. His parents and their neighbors collected some paper to light a fire, in the yard of their building, which was fully surrounded. A shell fell in the yard, and in a single moment, that boy lost his mother, his father and both grandparents. It’s hard to imagine. A lot of children came. The adults were treated in the other departments and we treated the children. When he arrived, he was out of his mind. He kept repeating, "Auntie, Auntie, I saw my dad's head flying through the air." It took us a lot of time to calm him down.

NARRATOR

In January 1994, ten-year-old Muhamed Kapetanovic, his friend Goran Todorovic, and a few other children of the same age went out to play in the snow in front of their apartment building in Alipasino Polje.

MUHAMED KAPETANOVICH

We were sledding and then we suddenly heard shells falling. We knew that it was nearby because of the volume of the explosion. Then we got very scared and started running away.

Before we managed to get to the entrance of the building, a shell landed behind us.

DRAGAN TODOROVICH

I felt a blow but, right away, I didn't feel that I had been wounded. The explosion shook me because it was quite nearby.

MUHAMED KAPETANOVICH

Daniel Juranic was killed. My leg, head and arm were injured. Hodzic Admir and Elvir were also injured.

DRAGAN TODOROVICH

I realized that I had been wounded, that there was blood running down my face. I wiped it and I saw blood on my fingers. That’s when and I started feeling faint. At that moment, my father was going down the stairs and he was the first person I saw at the staircase.

MUHAMED KAPETANOVICH

The worst was the wound on my leg. The doctor fought for a long time to save it, I had to go to Italy to be treated, while the other injuries, on my arm and face, were not quite so serious.

DRAGAN TODOROVICH

I remember that there was Mirza there who died; Nermin also died as a result of that incident, there was a boy called Dzenad as well, and Alen. I can't remember all names of the children who were there, but there was a total of perhaps 10 of us there.

JEREMY BOWEN

I thought it was a terrible crime that children were being killed in that way, and also I thought it was equally criminal that their funerals were shelled. I thought it was grotesquely violent and cruel.

GRAVEYARDS

NARRATOR

In Sarajevo, artillery and snipers did not target only the living, but the dead, too. Shells and sniper bullets hit the city cemeteries, and most of the burials took place under cover of the night – in the dark. In August 1992, a BBC correspondent saw for himself just how dangerous it was to bury the dead in a daytime.

VIDEO

When they arrived, they’ve been told that Vedrana had already been buried half an hour earlier because the graveyard has been shelled by the Serbs. That was bad enough but it got much worse. More shells started falling. One landed as the boys and girls from Vedrana’s children’s home arrived with their flowers. As quickly as they could they dropped them on the graves of Vedrana and the baby boy the sniper also murdered. It was time to go. As the family was leaving, the gunners found their range.

JEREMY BOWEN

I thought it inflicted terrible cruelty on the people. They were absolutely terrorized, the children as well, by what was going on there.And as I say, it was something that had happened, the gravediggers said, many times before. And you could see as well in the graveyard t wasn't safe even when you were dead there, in a sense. You were in the ground, and the whole thing could -- you could still be shelled.

NARRATOR

What makes this attack even more heartless and morbid was the fact that it happened at the funeral of the children killed the day before on a bus evacuating babies and kids from an orphanage out of the city. Snipers fired on the bus, killing two-year-old Vedrana Glavas, and six months younger Roki Sulejmanovic.

JEREMY BOWEN

My feelings about it are still that… even though I am, I suppose you could say, hardened by many years of covering conflict, I am still outraged by those images

WATER

NARRATOR

The forces holding Sarajevo under siege controlled the city water supply, and alternative water sources were targeted by their artillery and snipers. Fetching water became a risky business.

TARIK KUPUSOVICH

All of us in Sarajevo knew that siege of Leningrad in the Second World War lasted for 1.000 days, or rather 900 days. We also knew that the water supply cuts were not used as an instrument of accomplishing wartime goals.

YOUSSEF HAJIR

That was indeed the worst period of the war. Blockade of the city was inhumane act itself, but to cut off the water to 300.000 or 350.000 inhabitants of Dobrinja… That was truly inhumane… What can I say? None of us counts how many liters of water we consume per day, but can you imagine… A person has to carry a five or ten-liter jerry can and queue up to get some water... And among the crowd lining up for water a shell would land. It happened a few times.

RASIM MEHONJICH

I got there around 10AM, together with my wife. She was killed while we queued for water along with my two daughters, who arrived before us. I heard the explosion. I tried to get out and check on my family. I was stepping over dead and wounded bodies. I managed to get out and I saw that they were all dead, and then I fainted as well and I don't know what happened afterwards.

NARRATOR

. On 12 July 1993, nine civilians were killed by a mortar shell that hit a water line in Dobrinja neighborhood. Among killed were Mehonjic’s wife and two daughters, while he and fifteen others were wounded.

CHESTER STAMP

Were they buried?

RASIM MEHONJICH

Not on that day, since we couldn't even have a burial before the dark.

TUZZILAC

And did you attend their funeral?

MEHONJICH

No.

NARRATOR

To determine the direction from which shots had been fired, the investigators revisited the sites of all sniper incidents listed in the indictments. Sadija Šahinovic went back to the Dobrinja river bank and described to the investigators how her friend Munira Zametica, on 11 July ‘93, had been killed by a bullet fired from a church, about 900 meters away from the scene. She recounted the incident again in court.

SADIJA SSAHINOVICH

There were about six or seven persons already there, crouching. They didn't dare to move forward to get the water. Then my neighbor came up to me. She left one bucket next to me, carried the other one and said, "I'm going to get some water." She approached the river; and as the river was flowing in this direction, she turned around and started filling her bucket. Suddenly she put her hands to her chest and cried out. She tried to get out but she just fell over the concrete embankment. Her legs were next to the water. I saw her opening her mouth two or three times and I could see her larynx dropping out. The second bullet must have hit her here in the neck.

FIRE

ERNAUT VAN LINDEN

A resident watches, distraught, his home and belongings gone. Seconds later, further bursts of incendiary rounds crash into the building or bounce off the wall into the street below. Wanton arson on a purely civilian target. As ever, Sarajevo's remarkable firemen fight back, getting their hoses to the flames for once unhampered by a cut in the water supply. But for the fire chief, water is not the main concern. His engines are running out of fuel and he tells us he won't be able to cope with another fire this day.

NARRATOR

In the 44 months of siege, the Sarajevo firefighters put out 240 ‘major fires’, which would “equal 500 peacetime years’ - as one of them said in court. According to the statistics, ‘major fires’ occur once every four or five years, but during the siege there were days with as many as 18 ‘major fires’.

MESUD JUSUFOVIC,

So each of these large fires represented for us what for you the 11th of September would mean.

Essentially, each of these large fires was for us what 11th of September meant to you. It was very difficult to reach the scene. So first of all, we had to leave our station, which was under fire. Then, along the whole route, we would be targeted with shells and snipers. When we finally managed to reach the scene, we didn't dare go in through the door because that is what we did at the beginning. So many of us were killed and wounded.

ANDRAS RIEDLMAYER

The destruction of the Institute of Oriental Studies in Sarajevo, which according to numerous eyewitness reports was shelled and burned on the night of 17 May 1992, was probably the single largest loss of archival materials in Bosnia. The Institute of Oriental Studies held the former Ottoman provincial archives with more than 200.000 documents, and the country's richest collection of Islamic manuscripts, the record of more than 500 years of Bosnian Muslim cultural history.

VIDEO

Before the National Library was set on fire, the aggressor shut down the water supply in Sarajevo for 2 to 3 hours. There was no water. Anywhere.

ANDRAS RIEDLMAYER

The National Library is in the centre of the old town in Sarajevo, at the bottom of the valley. It's located in the former Austro-Hungarian era city hall and therefore still referred to as Vijecnica town hall by Sarajevans. It had been the National Library since World War II and was to Bosnia what the British Library is in respect to Britain; it was the library of record.

VIDEO

I was driving a cistern with 36.000 liters of water. We connected it to the hydrant and we took from it all we could. The water supply was cut. Then we put the water hoses straight to Miljacka river trying to pull water in order to put the fire out.

ANDRAS RIEDLMAYER

This is the day after the shelling. This is the interior of the National Library. You can see the blaze is intense. You can see pages of books dancing in the flames

VIDEO

The National Library burned down and we couldn’t save it because we had no water and because the city was under unexplainable artillery fire.

TRAMS

NARRATOR

Although some of the defense counsel tried to challenge their ‘civilian status’ because they looked like armored vehicles and because from time to time they were used by some uniformed man, Sarajevo trams under no circumstances could be considered as legitimate military targets. Moreover, most of the attacks on trams occurred in times of truce or deceptive lulls in the fighting along the confrontation lines.

SVJEDOKINJA “M”

So we took the tram, thinking, well, the cease-fire has been signed so nothing can happen, or at least that is what we believed. However, right at the second stop, I heard a shot. I looked at my child who was sitting next to the window. He was screaming. I picked him up and I saw that he was bleeding. Immediately we went down to the floor.

CAROLYN EDGERTON

You indicated that the tram you were riding on was headed towards Bascarsija and you were sitting facing the rear of the tram. Now, perhaps you could tell us, as you were sitting, which area of Sarajevo lay to your left-hand side?

AZEM AGOVIĆ

To my left, there was the Grbavica neighborhood. I was facing Ilidza.

CAROLYN EDGERTON

And what color of clothes were you wearing that day?

AZEM AGOVIĆ

I was wearing this very jacket I'm wearing today, 12 years on.

CAROLYN EDGERTON

That concludes the examination-in-chief, Your Honours. I don't have any further questions.

PATRICK ROBINSON

Thank you. Cross-examination.

BRANISLAV TAPUŠKOVIĆ

Your Honors, indeed, I'm ready to cross-examine. However, I heard something that is quite new to me; namely, that Mr. Agovic was wearing this very jacket on the day he was hit. That is something I didn't know. Can he show us where the bullet entered and exited his body? Can we see that on his jacket?

AZEM AGOVIĆ

Here you can see where the bullet entered. It passed through here and came out through here. If need be, I can also show it on my body, where the bullet entered and where it exited.

BRANISLAV TAPUŠKOVIĆ

Did the police who were doing the investigation take the jacket as corpus delicti? Did the police take any photos of your jacket at the time, and are there any photographs, contemporaneous photographs indicating that you were hit?

AZEM AGOVIĆ

The police did not take any photographs of either my jacket or me. I was wounded and I was in intensive care. There was no opportunity for them to carry out on-site investigation.

BRANISLAV TAPUŠKOVIĆ

Well, I've -- I almost feel like not asking anything any further. In fact, I will not put a single question to this witness. Thank you very much.

AFESA KARACCICH

I went downtown with my sister. We were looking for food, it was already afternoon and far to walk back, so we decided to get on the tram which had just started service. I suggested that we get on the tram because we couldn't carry all the groceries that we had bought. So we entered. So when we arrived at that spot I just felt a strong blow in my arm and heard screams.The tram kept on going to the point from where they could evacuate us. At that point, I ducked because I was standing when I was hit, and when I tried to get up, I realized that I had no control of my right arm.I told my sister to help me, because I couldn’t feel my arm. When they started evacuating us from the tram, I had to step over a dead body, a man who had been killed and then we were taken to the hospital.That's it.

KRMACA

SAWS

BRANISLAV TAPUSSKOVICH

Can the witness explain what the word "sow" means?

P 138

The sow is a female pig, isn’t it?

BRANISLAV TAPUSSKOVICH

Right, that is a big pig that just causes damage and soils the place that it enters, but it cannot endanger anyone's life. It just makes the place dirty and that's all. Were these bombs exactly something like that?

P 138

I didn’t have contacts with pigs.

NARATOR

In 1994, the Sarajevo-Romanija Corps added another weapon to its arsenal: ‘modified air bombs’, nicknamed ‘sows’. This was a highly destructive... and highly inaccurate weapon.

EMIR TURKUSIC

Accuracy is relative to size, if you define the target as the city of Sarajevo, then you can say that these air-bombs had the intention to kill, devastate, and destroy. And if you define them as such and the target as such, then you could say they're absolutely precise.

HUBERTUS BRUURMIJN

The air bombs we're referring to here are airplane bombs that are ordinarily dropped by an airplane on a target; in this case, I am referring to air bombs fired via Multiple Launch Rocket System. Their destructive power is several times greater. Mortar shells might weigh about ten kilograms and the air bomb used in Hrasnica weighed approximately 230 kilograms so it had a fair greater destructive power. I know that apparently there was an attempt to use air bombs to destroy the TV station.There were various attempts.One landed passed the TV station; two landed in front of the TV station.One hit an apartment building 25 meters from where I had rented a room, and one landed on Hrasnica, and I conducted that investigation, and based on reports from colleagues, at least one and probably others landed in the old area of Sarajevo.

RIALDA MUSAEFENDICH

First I heard the sound coming from a very powerful impact... This sound was followed by an even stranger sound. The best description that I could come up with is a thousand tiny feet walking on pebbles. It's a very curious sound that I will never forget. So it wasn't before the flashes started, these strange flashes. A huge flash and then the detonation and then the ensuing chaos.

THE LAST CIRCLE OF HELL

NARRATOR

In one of the Sarajevo trials judgment, the Chamber quoted an eyewitness who described the scenes at the Markale market – site of two notorious incidents with the largest number of civilian casualties - as ‘the last, deepest circle of Dante’s hell’.

MEHMED TRAVLJANIN

We heard the explosion. It was normal for us in Sarajevo in those days to hear explosions, and we would try to assess how powerful it was. Even old women knew the type of shell, whether it was 62 , 82 or 155mm. This time, the explosion was very powerful.We all jumped up and looked through the window. We saw people lying down and we didn't find it unusual, because in those cases, we all threw ourselves on the ground. That is human instinct. We saw that no one was getting up, or at least a lot of people did not get up, and then we realized what it was.

EZREMA BOSSKAJILO

I heard a tremendous blast, explosion. I was thrown by the blast to the side, in fact, I felt myself flying at that moment. Around me there were many injured people. It is very difficult to explain. There was a man without a leg. Everyone was crying or whimpering but I didn’t hear it very loud, my ears must have been deafened by the blast. I did not know where to look. Wherever I turned around me, there were lots of body parts and blood, lots of everything.

MEHMED TRAVLJANIN

I can't find the words. You have to see it to understand it. Parts of bodies were scattered around. Crying, howling, running around. People were dragging and loading. People were vomiting. But what could one do? That was our reality. It's difficult for a human mind to accept that such a thing could happen in the heart of Europe.

ESAD HADZIMURATOVICH

I got into my car, switched it on, and went back to the entrance into the market. I could see people still fleeing away from the market, and those who were healthy were carrying wounded towards my car. I opened the door of my car, and they put in as many people into the car as they could fit, and I set off towards the hospital. I handed them over to doctors and paramedics, and I then went back to the Markale market to see if there was somebody else that needed to be driven away.Even though I didn't enter there, I could still see chaos, people running around, putting away, picking up, I didn’t see what they were picking. And then they brought another round of wounded and I drove them to the hospital.

MARTIN BELL – VIDEO

On a previously quiet day, a number of shells fell on the city. One of them exploded in themain street, close to the scene of market place massacre of February last year. The result was the greatest carnage in Sarajevo since then.

SULEJMAN CRNČALO

In the evening, we heard some rumors that at the market in Sarajevo there was powdered milk to be bought, and milk was very important, specially for children. So my wife decided to go and buy some milk. She left the house and we agreed that she would not stay long, but come back at latest around 11.00.

EMIR TURKUSSICH

A colleague and I were going towards nearby market, which was the Markale Market, to buy something, using both money and cigarettes as currency.

SULEJMAN CRNCCALO

I began to worry when she didn't show up after 11.00. I went towards the market-place to look for her.

EMIR TURKUSSICH

But halfway, and we were already close to Markale, we saw a large number of cars with sirens on, going very fast and passing by. You could see that open trunks of the cars were full of wounded, dead.

SULEJMAN CRNCCALO

Halfway there, I ran into some people and started talking to them. They asked me, Where are you going? And then they said, There was a catastrophe there. A shell fell and a lot of people waskilled.

EMIR TURKUSSICH

We knew already that this was work for us, and returned to base that was just few minutes away from that place. We took the necessary equipment to analyze the crater, the azimuth, and everything else we needed, and we immediately proceeded to the site of the massacre.

SULEJMAN CRNČALO

I arrived at the scene where it happened. There was blood all over the place, flowing in the streets, bits of human flesh scattered around, bits of clothing and shoes torn and scattered all over. I didn’t see any bodies for they were gone already. A passer-by told me to go to the Kosevo Hospital.

ISMET SVRAKA

I think I'm the person here in white. It seems as I were sitting there in a white jacket, something like that.I sort of thought I'm wounded. And then I touched my face with my hands, and I said to myself “My head is still there.” I opened my eyes, your honors, maybe this sounds unbelievable, but I couldn’t see anything. I didn't feel anything until I was taken to hospital and they started to bandage me.The left leg was amputated above the knee. The right leg gave me more problems. They cleaned my leg for a month. It's like cleaning a ham. They cut a piece, and then if it's not good, then they go on cutting, and that wenton for a month.. it was dirty. I have some shrapnel here in my head as well. About three years ago they took an X-ray, and they said, You're doing fine Grandpa, don't worry...

SULEJMAN CRNCCALO

I was hoping that it would not be the worst. First I checked the lists of wounded people. I didn't find her on that list. I said to a doctor that my wife is not on the list and he said: “Go to the morgue.” And when I got there, I found my wife. in the morgue. She was killed.

MARTIN BELL

The hospital, its every corner and corridor, crowed with casualties. It’s supposedly part of the safe area under the UN protection. But what protection. UN bomb crater analysts were on the scene of the explosion. Unless the UN lays the blame, this attack also will go unanswered. Martin Bell, BBC News, Sarajevo.

MARTIN BELL

I think it's one of the most shocking of the war. On many occasions, and that was one of them, I was thinking to myself that if you ever try to make a movie of this war, you couldn't. The scenes going on around me could not be replicated for a movie. They were so terrible and they were real world and really shocking, and I also felt this cannot go on. We were more than three years into it. And I said to myself, you know, this cannot go on. It has to be stopped in the name of our common humanity. That's what I thought.

JUDICIAL EPILOGUE

NARRATOR

General Stanislav Galic, commander of the Sarajevo-Romanija Corps from September ‘92 to August ‘94, was sentenced to life in prison. That was the first judgment handed down by an international court for a terror campaign, conducted with the intent to instill permanent and extreme fear in the civilian population

Galic’s successor, General Dragomir Milosevic, was sentenced for the same crimes - committed between August 1994 and the end of the war - to 29 years in prison. He received a milder sentence because he was not in Sarajevo in August ’95, at the time of the second Markale massacre He was in Belgrade, undergoing medical treatment.

General Momcilo Perisic, former Chief of the Yugoslav Army General Staff, was sentenced to 27 years for providing logistical, personnel and other support to the Sarajevo-Romanija Corps, qualified as aiding and abetting the terror campaign. His case is under appeal.

Slobodan Milosevic, former president of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Serbia, also charged with aiding and abetting the terror campaign in Sarajevo, died in the Tribunal’s detention unit before the end of his trial.

The trial of Radovan Karadzic, former president of Republika Srpska, who is charged with planning and ordering the terror campaign, is still ongoing. Finally, General Ratko Mladic, former commander of the Bosnian Serb army, nicknamed ‘the scourge of Sarajevo’, is in the Tribunal’s detention awaiting trial, which is set to start in late May 2012.

The other crimes against Sarajevo civilians - on both sides of the confrontation lines - have been tried, are tried and will be tried by the national courts in the region, mostly by the State Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina, in Sarajevo.

ISMET SVRAKA

I would kindly ask you to invite me again when Mladic is here. If that's the last thing I do, I would like to come here and see him in court, brought before justice.

O-GON KWON

Thank you

ISMET SVRAKA

Thank you, too. May I now go home? It's over?

O-GON KWON

Yes, yes.

ISMET SVRAKA:

Goodbye. Thank you a lot.

Cases

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